How do Wind Turbines work? Best Engineering
When turbines extract kinetic energy from wind and transform it into electricity, in this post we will learn the working principle of horizontal axis wind turbine which is the most commonly used one.
When with high-energy passes over specially shaped wind turbine blades it induces a lift force tangential component of lift force will make the blade rotate this low-speed rotation will be transformed to high-speed with help of gear mechanism inside nacelle a generator in muscle will transform mechanical energy obtain to electrical energy direction of one can change at any time so a young mechanism in turbine make sure that turbine is always in direction of windVESA shirring maximum power extraction most often when speed will have dramatic fluctuations with time power produced by a wind turbine is highly sensitive to wind speed so unless if you don’t have a suitable mechanism power produced will be highly fluctuating which is undesirable.
In practice wind turbine starts only when there is a minimum speed to wind called cut and speed when speed is between cut and speed and the rated speed there will be varying power production after rated speed power production is maintained at the constant level this is achieved by adjusting the pitch of the blades with help of a controller mayor wind speed may be fatal for wind turbines so after a cut-out limit power production is turned off, in effect power produced by wind turbine will vary like this with wind speed such a profile will give much smoother power production.
next, we will see what is the maximum performance a wind turbine can have using a simplified one dimensional analysis since the turbine is extracting some energy at the outlet when we’ll have lesser kinetic energy compared to Inlet so I’d exit when velocity will be lower compared to inlet it will follow a trend like this.
From inlet to exit flow-rate passing through blade swept area is given as wind velocity a blade times density into an area when the velocity through blade can be approximated as an average of inlet and exit velocities since velocity at inlet is higher than outlet the same us will flow through and let an outlet through a smaller and bigger area so the fluid passing through the swept area will follow a flow volume like this.
When the turbine is same as a decrease in kinetic energy from Inlet to the outlet so wind turbine can extract maximum energy when the product of these two terms are maximum-power extracted will vary like this with a ratio of exit to inlet velocity and we’ll have a maximum value when exit velocity is 1 by third of inlet velocity power input to win mine is Inlet kinetic energy of wind passing through the same swept area which can be modified in terms of velocity efficiency of the wood turbine is the ratio of power extracted to power input so we can show that a wind turbine can convert up to fifty-nine point two six percent when kinetic energy to work this is known as belts limit but this is an idealistic case possible only when the wind turbine is rotating at high rpm and having an infinite number of blades a real turbine will have the much lower performance we will learn about factors which affect wind turbine design a next Post.